Курс лекцій з навчальної дисципліни \"дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи\" для студентів ІV курсу денної форми навчання icon

Курс лекцій з навчальної дисципліни "дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи" для студентів ІV курсу денної форми навчання



НазваКурс лекцій з навчальної дисципліни "дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи" для студентів ІV курсу денної форми навчання
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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

КРЕМЕНЧУЦЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

ІМЕНІ МИХАЙЛА ОСТРОГРАДСЬКОГО

КУРС ЛЕКЦІЙ

З НАВЧАЛЬНОЇ ДИСЦИПЛІНИ

"ДИПЛОМАТИЧНА КОРЕСПОНДЕНЦІЯ ТА МІЖНАРОДНІ ДОКУМЕНТИ"

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ ІV КУРСУ ДЕННОЇ ФОРМИ НАВЧАННЯ

НАПРЯМУ ПІДГОТОВКИ 6.020303 «ФІЛОЛОГІЯ»

КРЕМЕНЧУК 2012

Курс лекцій з навчальної дисципліни «Дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи» для студентів ІV курсу денної форми навчання напряму підготовки 6.020303 «Філологія»

Укладач ст. викл. Мацак Ж.Г.

Рецензент доц. Пірог І.І.

Кафедра перекладу

Затверджено методичною радою Кременчуцького національного університету імені Михайла Остроградського
Протокол № ___ від ______________ 2012 р.
Голова методичної ради __________ проф. В. В. Костін
Курс лекцій з навчальної дисципліни «Дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи» для студентів ІV курсу денної форми навчання напряму підготовки 6.020303 «Філологія»

Укладач ст. викл. Мацак Ж.Г.
Відповідальний за випуск зав. кафедри перекладу доц. І.І. Пірог

Підп. до др._________. Формат 60х84 1/16. Папір тип. Друк ризографія.

Ум. друк. арк._________. Наклад____прим. Зам. № __________. Безкоштовно.

Видавничий відділ

Кременчуцького національного університету

імені Михайла Остроградського

вул. Першотравнева, 20, м. Кременчук, 39600

ЗМІСТ


Вступ………………………………………………………………………..….

Теми та погодинний розклад лекцій і самостійної роботи………………...

4

5

Лекція 1…………………………………………………………………………

6

Лекція 2………………………………………………………………................

11

Лекція 3………………………………………………………………................

13

Лекція 4………………………………………………………………................

20

Лекція 5………………………………………………………………................

26

Лекція 6………………………………………………………………................

28

Список літератури…………………………………………………………….

35







ВСТУП
Навчальна дисципліна „Дипломатична кореспонденція та міжнародні документи” являє собою лекційний курс, який націлено на навчання основ перекладу, реферування та композиції текстів міжнародних документів та дипломатичної кореспонденції як різновиду офіційно-ділового стилю англійської мови.

Дана навчальна дисципліна викладається студентам ІV курсу, які отримали знання з таких навчальних дисциплін, як „Практика перекладу з англійської мови” (2 – 4 курси) та „Основи ділової кореспонденції”(2 курс).

Кожна лекція розрахована на дві години. Після кожної лекції подано питання для самопідготовки.

У лекціях використано ориґінальні матеріали ООН й інших міжнародних організацій та зразки документів найбільш розповсюджених у міжнародних відносинах.

Мета курсу полягає в тому,щоб навчити студентів основ перекладу текстів міжнародних документів та дипломатичної кореспонденції.

У результаті вивчення дисципліни студент повинен:

знати: лексику, яка використовується в оригінальних матеріалах ООН та інших міжнародних організаціях, а також у міжнародних договорах.

уміти: виконувати усний та письмовий переклад міжнародних та дипломатичних документів, найбільш розповсюджених у міжнародних відносинах.


1 ТЕМИ ТА ПОГОДИННИЙ РОЗКЛАД ЛЕКЦІЙ І САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ



пор.

Тема

Денна форма навчання

К-сть год. лекцій

К-сть год. СРС

1

Diplomatic Correspondence. Дипломатична кореспонденція

2

3

2

Full Powers. Повноваження

2

3

3

International Documents. Міжнародні документи

2

3

4

Treaties and Conventions. Договори та конвенції. Agreements. Угоди

2

2

5

Declarations. Декларації

2

2

6

Constituent acts of the United Nations and other international organizations

2

2




Усього годин за семестр

12

15


LECTURE ONE

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE

Plan

1.Formal letters.

2.Informal letters.

3.Notes verbales.

1. In the United Nations official communications may take the form of formal or
informal letters, notes verbales, or memoranda. The following descriptions will suggest the appropriate form to use in different circumstances.

Formal letters are those employing diplomatic style and phraseology. Normally
such letters are addressed only to heads of State or Government, ministers for foreign affairs and permanent representatives.

Subjects which require formal letters include, among others, official statements of policy by the Secretary-General, actions taken or ‘contemplated of the Secretary-General in connection with decisions or recommendations of organs of the United Nations, acknowledgements of the credentials or appointments of permanent representatives, and similar information to Governments and permanent missions on matters involving the duties and responsibilities of the Secretary-General under the Charter.

The proper salutation for a formal letter is “Sir” or “Madam” followed by a comma. In addressing a person with ambassadorial rank, the form “Excellency” may be used. The salutation should begin with the same margin as the text and should be typed six or more lines below the reference number, depending on the length of the letter. The text should begin with the expression “I have the honour to ...”, except in the case of formal letters from undersecretaries or officials of equivalent rank to permanent represen­tatives. These begin with “I am directed by the Secretary-General to ...” or “On behalf of the Secretary-General, I have the honour to ...”. The expression “I have the honour to ...” is usually required only in the opening sentence. Succeeding paragraphs should normally begin without this introductory phrase. Where it is necessary to refer to a resolution or act of one of the organs of the United Nations or to a previous communication from the Secretary-General, the appropriate form is “I have the honour to refer to ...” or “I invite your attention to ...”. If a request is made of the addressee, the expression “I should be grateful” is appropriate. The complimentary close for formal letters is “Accept, Sir (Madam), the assurance (s) of my highest consideration”. It should be indented as a separate paragraph.

Formal letters to ministers for foreign affairs or permanent representatives should, as a rule, include the name of the addressee in the address. The address should also contain personal titles such as “His Excellency”, “Her Excellency” and “Ambassador”, written in full. The full address should be given on the ‘envelope, but details such as street address and room number may be omitted on the letter itself.

The date should be in the form “2 August 2002”. The names of the months should not be abbreviated, and cardinal numbers should be used. The date should appear in the upper right-hand part of the page on the same horizontal line as the reference number, ending at least fifteen spaces from the right-hand edge. The left-hand margin should be twenty spaces from the edge of the page and the right-hand margin about fifteen.

To contribute effectively to the conduct of the business of the United Nations, its
official correspondence must be clear and accurate in content, direct and dignified in
style, correct in form and attractive in appearance. (From “United Nations
Correspondence Manual”)


2. Informal letters are used for the day-to-day correspondence of the Secretariat with persons outside the Secretariat and for communications addressed to other organizations in the United Nations system. They are also used for letters from the Secretary-General or from under-secretaries-general or assistant secretaries-general to permanent representatives or senior members of missions or delegations, except when the subject makes a formal letter more suitable.

The salutation of an informal letter should begin with the same margin as the text and be followed by a comma. It should be six or more lines below the reference number, depending on the length of the letter.

The complimentary closing should be centred above the signature block.

The salutation and corresponding closing may take any of the following forms, as appropriate:

Salutation Corresponding Closing

Dear Sir ( Dear Madam), Yours truly,

Dear Sirs ( Dear Mesdames),

Dear Mr.... (Dear Mrs...), Yours sincerely,

Dear Miss.... (Dear Ms...), ( or Sincerely yours),

Dear Mr. (Madam) Ambassador I remain, dear Mr.(Madam)

Ambassador,

Yours sincerely,

When the name of the addressee is known, it should be used. The forms "Dear Sir" and "Dear Madam" are appropriate only in impersonal letters. In circular letters the form "Dear Sir or Madam" may be used.

On informal letters the date should appear in the upper right-hand part of the page on the same horizontal line as the reference number, ending at least fifteen spaces from the right-hand edge.

The left-hand margin should be twenty spaces from the edge of the page and the right-hand margin about fifteen. {From "UnitedNations Correspondence Manual")

3.A note verbale (referred to in the text of a communication simply as a "note") is a formal note written in the third person. This form is always used in replying to an incoming note verbale; an incoming letter is answered by a letter. Notes verbales may be addressed to a permanent representative (or an observer) or a permanent mission, a minister for foreign affairs or a ministry of foreign affairs. Where direct correspondence with any other government officer or office has been authorized, it must be in letter form. The note verbale is not normally used for communications with other organizations in the United Nations system, and should never be used for communications with non-governmental organizations or the public.

Typical uses of notes verbales include the exchange of information between the United Nations and Governments or permanent missions, the transmission of decisions or recommendations of United Nations organs, requests for and acknowledgements of information and documents, the transmission of information regarding the time and place of meetings, acknowledgements of changes in the membership of permanent missions or delegations and other requests or acknowledgements to Governments relating to the substantive work of the United Nations.

A note verbale contains no complimentary closing. Its salutation forms part of the opening sentence of the text and begins with the regular paragraphing. In selecting the form of the salutation, it is important to note the following instructions:

A note verbale may be written in the name of the Secretary-General or of the Secretariat, but not in the name of a department or of an official of the Secretariat. When a note verbale is sent in the name of the Secretary-General, it is addressed to a person, e. g.:

"The Secretary-General of the United Nations presents Ms compliments to the Permanent Representative of... to the United Nations and has the honour to ...".

When a note verbale is sent in the name of the Secretariat, it is addressed to an office, not a person, e.g.:

"The Secretariat of the United Nations presents its compliments to the Permanent Mission of ... to the United Nations and has the honour to ...".

A note verbale in reply to one addressed to the Secretary-General should always be sent in the name of the Secretary-General. Thus, if a note verbale from a permanent mission is addressed to the Secretary-General, the reply will be sent in the name of the Secretary-General to the Permanent Representative.

Answer the questions

  1. What is a note verbale? 2. What style is preferred in drafting notes verbales? 3. What subjects require notes verbales? 4. Who are they usually addressed to? 5. What is the basic outline of a note verbale? 6. What protocol formulas are acceptable in notes verbales? 7. What instructions should be followed carefully in drafting a note verbale?

Література: [1, c. 226–268].

LECTURE TWO

FULL POWERS. ПОВНОВАЖЕННЯ

Plan

1.A full power.

2. The form of the full powers issued nowadays to representatives for such purposes as the negotiation and signature of a treaty.
A diplomatic agent to whom a particular negotiation is entrusted for the conclusion of a treaty or convention, or an agent who is deputed to take part in a congress or conference for a similar purpose, requires as a general rule a special authorization, called a full power, from the head of the state whom he represents; or, it may be from its government, if the proposed treaty arrangement is to be between governments.

Full powers to ratify a treaty or to accede to a treaty are now obsolete, presumably because ratification and accession are the acts of governments themselves.

At a time when most states were governed by more or less absolute monarchs, when weeks and months were consumed in travelling from one capital to another, and when there was no mode of communication faster than a horse, a full power invested its recipient with power to bind his principal, provided that he acted within the limits of its authority. Today a full power means something quite different; it invests the agent with power to negotiate and to sign a treaty but not with power to bind his principal, except in those cases where the signing of a treaty alone suffices for this purpose.

When the representatives of the negotiating states enter upon their task, the first step is the mutual submission of their full powers for verification. In the case of a multipartite negotiation, the duty of verification falls upon the "headquarters government" or, in the case of treaties concluded under the auspices of the United Nations, upon its Secretariat, assisted in each case by a small committee of plenipotentiaries. It would be useless to enter upon negotiations without this assurance that the representatives present were duly authorized to speak and sign on behalf of their states or governments. It is not essential that the full powers should be actually exchanged and retained by the opposite party. Sometimes certified copies are retained, and sometimes the full powers issued ad hoc are handed to a "headquarters government", which preserves them in the archives of the treaty. Practice is not uniform.

The full powers vary greatly in form, according to the particular constitution or the settled practice of the country which issues them. Differences may also exist according to the degree of importance ascribed to the treaty, or whether it is to be concluded between heads of state or, on the other hand, between governments. The essential feature of all such documents is that they should show by their terms that the representative to whom they are issued is invested with all necessary authority on the part of the state concerned to take part in the negotiations pending, and to conclude and sign, subject if necessary to ratification, the treaty instrument which may result from these negotiations.

Answer the questions

l. What is a full power? 2. When does the diplomatic agent require a special authorization, called a full power, from the head of the state^ whom he represents? 3. When and where are the full powers of the plenipotentiaries exhibited for verification? 4. What was the custom observed in former times? 5. What is the form of the full powers issued nowadays to representatives for such purposes as the negotiation and signature of a treaty? 6. Who performs the duty of verification of the full powers? 7. What seems to be the most essential feature of such documents?

Література: [1, c. 294–334] .

LECTURE THREE

INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS. МІЖНАРОДНІ ДОКУМЕНТИ
Plan

1. A role of diplomatic correspondence among other forms of the diplomatic activity of a state.

2. The main forms of written official communications between states.

3. Letters of credence and letters of recall.

One major and, in fact, increasingly important aspect of diplomatic work is the drafting of diplomatic documents.

There are many different forms of official diplomatic documents. A considerable proportion consists of documents that are of a purely intradepartmental nature. Another category of diplomatic documents are those through which official international intercourse goes on in written form. Such documents express the position of a state on a particular question of international affairs. Some of them are confidential by virtue of specific circumstances (there are even oral messages or oral statements whose contents are read out but not officially handed over to the addressees).

A large number of diplomatic documents are never published owing to the insignificance of their subject matter (for instance, notes requesting visas).But a fairly large proportion of diplomatic documents, particularly those relating to important international problems, are made public.

Until recently diplomatic practice distinguished the following five forms of written official communications:

(1) personal notes, (2) verbal notes (notes verbales), (3) aides-memoire, (4) memoranda, and (5) semi-official letters.

A personal note takes the form of a letter drawn up in the first person on behalf of its signatory. It begins with a salutation and ends with a complimentary phrase, that is, a standard expression of polite respect.

A verbal note is considered to be the most commonly used form of diplomatic communication. It is drawn up in the third person and is not usually signed. It begins and ends with standard formulas of courtesy.

Some handbooks on diplomatic practice, notably the fundamental book by Ernest Satow, do not name personal notes as an independent form of diplomatic communication, but simply refer to "notes". It is, however, stipulated that a note may be either in the first or in the third person. [...].

In diplomatic practice it is now common to distinguish between personal notes and verbal notes, the former being a note drawn up in the first person and signed, and the latter being drawn up in the third person and either initialed or left unsigned.

Until fairly recently the choice of the form of a note, signed or unsigned, was regarded as a definite indication of the state of relations between the countries concerned. Nowadays verbal notes have become part and parcel of the international intercourse, and no one would now regard a verbal note sent to an embassy as a display of any ill will.

The aide-memoire. Diplomatic practice knows two types of aides-memoire: (a) handed over personally and (b) delivered by a courier. The purpose of transmitting an aide-memoire is to facilitate the further progress of a transaction and to prevent the subject of a personal conversation or an oral statement from being misinter­preted or misunderstood.

A memorandum may be a separate and independent document or it may be appended to a personal note or a verbal note. In the latter case the memorandum elaborates and justifies the subject matter dealt with in the note. The distinguishing feature of a memorandum is a detailed exposition of the factual or legal aspects of a particular question.

In describing the memorandum, Ernest Satow notes that this form of diplomatic document is often a detailed statement of facts, and of arguments based thereon, not differing essentially from a note, except that it does not begin or end with a formula of courtesy, and need not be signed, but it may be convenient to accompany it with a short covering note. In earlier times these were often termed deduction or expose de motifs.

Semi-official, or informal, letters are sent to officials, with whom one is acquainted, in cases involving personal favours (thanks for an invitation, a request for assistance) or relating to administrative matters.

Most forms of diplomatic documents contain the following components, or elements:

  1. protocol formulas;

  2. purport;

  3. argumentation;

  4. exposition of the fact or facts.

Included under the heading of "protocol formulas" are the proper titling of the person addressed, an expression of respect for the addressee at the beginning and the complimentary phrase which concludes the document. Protocol formulas are used in personal messages of heads of government or state, personal notes, verbal notes, and aides-memoire delivered by a courier (the latter form has almost completely gone out of use). Other forms of diplomatic documents contain no protocol formulas.

As the name itself suggests, the purport is the principal part of a diplomatic document. In extent it may be very short as compared with the other parts. Yet it is the purport that carries the main idea of the document and is, in fact, a concentrated expression of a state's position on the main issue under discussion. To point out the purport correctly means to correctly grasp the meaning of a diplomatic document.

By their content diplomatic documents, whatever their form (notes, declarations, aides-memoire, etc.), may be classified as follows:

  1. documents containing proposals;

  2. documents registering a protest;

  3. documents warning of possible measures of retaliation;

  4. documents establishing a political or international legal
    position in respect of an act committed by another state or states
    or in respect of an international event;

  5. documents announcing measures contemplated or implemented, which are of international significance;

  6. documents recording an agreement or a degree of accord reached.

Naturally, this classification is in some respect conditional, since in practice any diplomatic document may combine several of the above-mentioned characteristics. Even in that case, however, one of the meanings seems to be predominant.

It is customary in diplomatic correspondence to observe the rules of tact and politeness, to avoid harsh expressions wounding to the dignity of the country to which a diplomatic document is addressed. (From "Modern Diplomacy " by K. Anatoliev)

In view of the importance of the position, official as well as personal, of the head of a diplomatic mission, custom requires that the government which sends the envoy ascertains before his appointment that he will be persona grata. The request for agrement or acceptance is presented either through the head of mission of the receiving state or the charge d'affaires who is temporarily in charge of the mission, or through the diplomatic mission of the sending state in the receiving state. As soon as consent is obtained the appointment is made public.

The new head of mission is provided by the government with official letters called letters of credence or, colloquially, credentials. These letters are placed in an envelope sealed with wax, and must, in principle, be opened by the head of state at the time of presentation. A true copy (copie d 'usage) is added which is destined to be delivered by the head of mission to the Minister for Foreign Affairs at the time of his arrival. These letters confer upon the foreign envoy the authority for his mission and determine bearing of his appointment.

The protocol forms of his official document include one which accredits, personally, the new head of mission to the head of state and requests faith and credence in the former's statements.

In most states, the presentation of credentials by a diplomatic representative implies recognition dejure of a provisional government

Political agents sent to de facto recognized foreign governments are simply provided with credentials addressed from Minister for Foreign Affairs to Minister for Foreign Affairs. In certain states, however -- the United States and Japan, for instance, — the presentation of credentials addressed by head of state to head of state does not carry with it recognition de jure of the local government. The delivery of credentials can, at that time, be accompanied by formal reserves which specify the character of the relations between both states.

Charges d'affaires with letters (Vienna Convention, art. 14c) receive lettres de cabinet or cabinet letters addressed by Minister for Foreign Affairs to Minister for Foreign Affairs. These letters are delivered directly to the Minister for Foreign Affairs on arrival of the charge d'affaires who, from that moment, is considered as having officially assumed his functions.

Before the arrival of a head of mission the charge d'affaires m'akes known to the Minister for Foreign Affairs the date and hour of arrival of the incumbent and ascertains when the Minister will receive the new head of mission on his first visit. The charge d'affaires should also call on the Dean of the diplomatic corps and announce the arrival of the new head of mission.

The arrival of a head of mission in the capital where he is to exercise his functions does not call for any official ceremony. The new agent must be considered incognito until he presents his credentials to the head of state. It is customary, however, for the local authorities to show him and those accompanying him certain attentions, such as customs and frontier police facilities and reception at his place of arrival by an official of the protocol service, etc. Local customs determine these various attentions.

Delivery of the credentials of the new head of mission should be preceded by the sending of the letters of recall of the agent whose mission has been brought to an end. These letters are presented by the head of mission on the occasion of his audience to take leave. They can also be brought by the new diplomatic representative. This is always the case in the United Kingdom.

As soon as the new head of mission has arrived he is informed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the day and hour when the Foreign Minister will receive him for the delivery of the copie d'usage of the credentials, which will be in his possession, and perhaps of the letters of recall of his predecessor. The custom of each Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to indicate the form in which the new head of mission should make his visit and, should the occasion arise, other visits. He has recourse to the protocol service for all information which he may need for his purpose.

It is the general custom for the new arrival, immediately after his private reception by the Foreign Minister, to call, unofficially, on the Dean of the diplomatic corps in order to ascertain local protocol requirements.

The Minister for Foreign Affairs is not required to return the visit of the new head of mission; this also applies to the Dean of the diplomatic corps.

When a copy of the credentials of a new head of mission has been examined and found correct in substance as well as in form, the protocol service at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs will, in accordance with local custom, arrange an audience for the new head of mission with the head of state, for delivery of the credentials.

The reception by the head of state of an ambassador or a minister plenipotentiary constitutes official recognition of this representative. The protocol service handles the ceremonial, i. e., composition and order of the procession which may include an escort, military honours, exchange of addresses, etc. An account of the ceremony is generally published in an official publication.

All heads of mission are received by the head of state, in the order of their arrival in the capital (Vienna Convention, art. 13). The ceremonial dress should be the same for all heads of mission of equal rank (art. 18). From this moment, the head of mission enjoys the diplomatic status with all its accompanying immunities and prerogatives. He takes rank on the diplomatic list as from the day and hour he presented his credentials (art. 16). In some countries, however, diplomatic status and seniority both date from the delivery of the copie d'usage as, for instance, in Great Britain. (From "Diplomatic Ceremonial and Protocol"by J. Wood& J. Serres)
Answer the questions

l. What is the role of diplomatic correspondence among other forms of the diplomatic activity of a state? 2. What are the main forms of written official communications between states? 3. What is the difference between a personal note and a verbal note? 4. What is an aide-memoire? 5.What is the difference between "a memorandum" as a form of diplomatic correspondence between states and "an interoffice memorandum" as a form of UN communications? 6. What are the main component parts of most forms of diplomatic communications between states? 7.How are the diplomatic documents classified with regard to their content?

8. When is the appointment of a diplomatic envoy made public? 9. What is a "true copy" of the credentials? When is it delivered? 10 . Which document accredits a new head of mission to the head of state requesting faith and credence in the former's statements? 11.Why should a charge d'affaires call on the Dean of the diplomatic corps before the arrival of the newly appointed ambassador? 12. What is considered an official recognition of an ambassador or a minister plenipotentiary?13. When are the letters of credence usually presented?
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